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Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs

Objectives of the commitment

CYCLEFIBER will define, industrialize and implement a recycling process for the high volumes of CFRP, GFRP and Recycled Paper both from Manufacturing Scrap and EoL components, together with WEEE Rare Earth & recycled ABS.
The technology & materials quality will be demonstrated in the four environments (mentioned above), through both Conventional Mould Processes and 3D Printer (to be designed to optimize the recycled materials properties), hence reducing manufacturing time and cost and minimizing the investment required for new products.
Cost effectiveness and environmental impact reduction will prove the advantage of using recycled CFRP/GFRP, hence avoiding landfilling of fibre-based materials in excess of 5 Millions t/year, transforming them in a functional resource to Large Scale 3D Printing Process, based on user-friendly Software that will set standard for additive manufacturing.

Description of the activities

The Consortium will work in:

Development Area 1 Materials Selection, Recycling and Characterization.
Identification, Selection, Logistic and Supplying of EoL and Manufacturing Scrap.

Development Area 2 3D Printer Hardware and Software
Cyclefiber excels at providing feasible, technologically viable, and affordable solutions by raising tech level into the four main aspects of 3D printing:
1. Materials
2. Workflow: by seamlessly integrating design-to-production processes.
3.Software: a platform that translates design ideas into machine-readable content. This development means the democratization of robotic fabrication and the universalization of the thereby implied processes.
4.Hardware: 6-axis robots are easily transportable and succeed in being able to move freely in 3d space without the limitations inherent to other oversize 3d printing methods.
Lowering material usage lowers the use of required energy and cost.

Development Area 3 Applications
Conventional Manufacturing Process and Medium and Large Scale 3D Printing.
SCALABILITY TO PLANT SCALE demonstrated through proof of concept.

Development Area 4 Market analysis and Exploitation
Estimation of the recycling market potential. LCA and LCCA Analysis.
An analysis of the current policy in the EU so as to identify main drivers and barriers for collection, transport and recycling of fibre waste and the resulting substitute for natural graphite, including Verification Study on Recycling and Landfilling Policy framework.
Implementation Plan for exploitation of results.

CycleFiber implies achieving the following objectives:

Objective 1: Logistic of end of life and manufacturing scrap of CFRP, GFRP and Recycled Paper

Objective 2: Recycling process optimization

Objective 3: Materials Functionality.
The functionality of Secondary Raw Materials, resulting from recycling will be tailored and designed to best fit both the 3D Manufacturing Process, optimizing the Curing Time and the Deposition Rate.

Objective 4: High-Performance and High-Value Components at reduced price
The 4 applications defined (Aeronautical Panels and Sub-structure, Wind Blades Panels, Car Window-Lifter and Graphite Blocks), will reduce time to market by 4 to 6 months and will reduce component price by an estimated 23% by eliminating Not Recurring Cost (NRC) of moulds and ancillary materials and the time requested for their industrialization.
The first 3 applications represent a very high value product, varying in a range from 87 €/Kg (Car Window-Lifter) to 1540 €/Kg (Aeronautical Structure) of Component Price to the final client (OEM).

Objective 5: Proof of material performance in lab scale and estimation of long-term performance

Objective 6: 3D Printing Hardware and Software
The real-time simulation of the fabrication process will likewise include material usage, time needs, and total manufacturing costs.
The use of 3D printing is the solution for 0-waste construction and optimized on-site waste management.
Objective 7: Industrial application validation
The scientific and technical objectives outlined above will contribute towards the overall objectives:
1. Improving the material functionality and properties compared to currently available synthetic material.
2. Reducing the risks for environment and human health, such as Land-Abuse. The 3D Printing will decrease the energy consumption and the elimination of NRC, lead to a drastically reduced environmental footprint.
3. International cooperation

Description of the expected impacts

CycleFiber will contribute to increase in competitiveness and sustainability of European industries through an innovative recycling process that will imply employment and training through engagement in cutting edge tech in aerospace and auto sectors.
By using recycled materials, production costs can be significantly decreased and following impacts achieved:
a. 43% reduced energy consumption of CFRP production
b. 42% cost reduction of materials
c. Waste generation reduction by a minimum of 20,7%
d. Carbon footprint reduction of industrial applications by 18%

Economic impact
According to Lux Research, the market size of 3D printed parts is expected to grow up to $8.4 billion in 2025. The main sectors involved are:
- Aerospace, Electronics and Consumer are expected to grow significantly, in about $1 billion each.
- Medical, the most disruptive market, is to reach about $1.5 billion by 2025.
- Automotive: is expected to grow the most in the next 10 years, reaching about $4 billion by 2025.

Environmental Impact
Today´s CFRP and GFRP EoL remains the use of landfill or incineration with energy recovery. Besides, environment regulations may eventually lead to a restriction on them: used CFRP (GFRP) can be successfully segregated from other materials and can be successfully recycled.

Societal Impact: Training and Employment
For the specific CycleFiber project, the Consortium is planning the direct impact of 31 trainees in the ITRB Academy Program and 72 trainees among end-users.
Democratization of 3D Printing of Large Scale Components will allow SMEs with Low Investment capability on Not Recurring Cost to penetrate the market with a share that Consortium study locate in the range of 21%-32,5% with a direct job creation at European Level exceeding the

Coordinating organisation & role

Name of the coordinating organisation: ITRBCountry: CyprusEntity profile: Private sector - SMERole within the commitment:

ITRB coordinates this project.
The strong competence and experience in managing aerospace programs, allows ITRB to guarantee necessary support to fulfil contrasting project’s requirements: a strong overview of the whole project whose extension is meant to cover the next years, together with a detailed short and medium term commitment to schedule and deadlines .
A long experience and Innovative approach in Materials Life-Cycle Management.

Other partners

Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Angewandten Forschung e.V.

Name of the organisation: Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Angewandten Forschung e.V. Country: Germany Entity profile: Governmental/public body
Role within the commitment: Fraunhofer will lead the CFRP and GFRP recycling research.
Fraunhofer will perform corrosion tests on the developed materials.
Fraunhofer will work with CIDAUT on the implementation, validation and refinement of LCCA tools for the project. Fraunhofer is the Quality Manager of the Consortium and will oversee deliverables and general reporting are produced with the best possible quality following agreed review standards.

Fundacion Cidaut

Name of the organisation: Fundacion Cidaut Country: Spain Entity profile:
Role within the commitment: CIDAUT will lead the research activities on materials recycling and compounding, implementing lab scale demonstrators of each process at its premises and, later, supporting end-users upscale the processes.
CIDAUT will perform mechanical tests, microstructural analyses, injection moulding capability studies on the developed materails, and will work with Fraunhofer on the implementation, validation and refinement of LCCA tools for the project.

RWTH Aachen University (Institute of plastic processing (IKV)

Name of the organisation: RWTH Aachen University (Institute of plastic processing (IKV) Country: Germany Entity profile: Governmental/public body
Role within the commitment: RWTH will implement the novel 3D Generative Preforming process (3D Fibre Spraying) that enables to create high-value long fibre-reinforced 3D preforms for thermoplastic and thermoset composites at low process costs (different kinds of yarn as a raw material, low tooling costs due to low cavity pressures). This cost effective technology allows to align the sprayed fibres in order to produce high-performance, engineered anisotropic products.

Universita' di Cagliari

Name of the organisation: Universita' di Cagliari Country: Italy Entity profile:
Role within the commitment: University of Cagliari is one of the leading European organization in the resin design and coupling with thermoplastic and thermose materials. University of Cagliari will support in the definition of the composite materials, both from CFRP/GFRP, ABS and Rare Earth composite material.

Relight

Name of the organisation: Relight Country: Italy Entity profile: Private sector - SME
Role within the commitment: RELIGHT will work with ITRB to provide the research partners with residues for the recycled ABS supply and the REE recovery processes, including their HydroWEEE process as part of the processes to be studied and analyzed.

Piaggio Aerospace

Name of the organisation: Piaggio Aerospace Country: Italy Entity profile: Private sector - large company
Role within the commitment: Piaggio Aerospace is one of the project End Users (Aeronautics Industry): as such it will provide requirements and further applications that could be developed with the Consortium Materials. Piaggio will assist in the compounds selection, provide Fraunhofer with specific corrosion requirements on business jet size aircraft, and will assess that the developed materials performance fits the selected applications desired improvements.

Blackshape Aircrafts

Name of the organisation: Blackshape Aircrafts Country: Italy Entity profile: Private sector - SME
Role within the commitment: Blackshape Aircrafts is one of the project End Users (Aeronautics Industry): as such it will provide requirements and further applications that could be developed with the Consortium Materials. Blackshape will support to fulfill the requirements of the aeronautics industry on ultra light jet, light jet and trainer for Syllabus, and will assess that the developed alloys performance fits the selected applications desired improvements.

KU Leuven

Name of the organisation: KU Leuven Country: Belgium Entity profile: Academia
Role within the commitment: KUL will collaborate on the balance problem studies and will lead the rare earth recovery research with the solvometallurgical and ionometallurgical processes.
KUL will also contribute to the final compounding selection.
KUL is the Dissemination Manager of the project, promoting that all partners are active on the project Dissemination.

FIDAMC

Name of the organisation: FIDAMC Country: Spain Entity profile: Governmental/public body
Role within the commitment: FIDAMC is going to lead the Work Package on Compression Moulding with CFRP-enhanced materials. As part of the AIRBUS Group, FIDAMC will also be able to provide the input material.
FIDAMC successfully developed a 3D Printer of own design to serve the Aerospace Industry and will be supporting Smart Lab 3D Industries in its 3D printer design.

COMPOSITE INNOVATION CENTER

Name of the organisation: COMPOSITE INNOVATION CENTER Country: Canada Entity profile: Governmental/public body
Role within the commitment: Composite Innovation Center is one of the world leading organization in the field of Composite materials, both from carbon fiber and vegetal-based fibers.
Composite Innovation center has successfully implemented, at lab-scale, recycling processes for CFRP and GFRP.

Existing EU Contribution: No

Period to implement the commitment: from 31-03-2016 to 15-03-2018