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Objectives of the commitment

The objective of RMC is to create efficient platform for actors from private, public and non-governmental sectors including academia. A large number of commitments cover the entire raw material value chain carrying out actions according to the objectives of the EIP SIP, namely to boost the innovation capacity of the EU raw materials-related sectors. Individual projects alone or research institutes cannot fulfil these objectives. In RMC the partners jointly commit to co-operate and take actions enabling the full potential of primary and secondary materials.Technological objective is to substitute or reduce raw materials that are crucial for a strong European industrial base. In this commitment especially energy, aerospace and mining industries are identified industry areas were scarce elements are widely used in materials.

Description of the activities

The Consortium will identify and develop substitutes for CRMs in energy, aerospace and mining industries. Materials used in these industries at this moment are heat resistant alloys, stainless steels and hard materials. The whole value chain is present in this RMC, covering research/development, manufacturing and end-users.
The main approach is to increase the use of suitable methods and tools for substitution research and development applied to industrial applications, such as combinatorial approaches to materials research – the consortium are aiming to develop a combinatorial workflow for systematic and efficient materials screening and development, modelling approaches and assessments such as LCA. The second approach is to combine the value chain of the actors in the raw material substitution under extreme condition, the discussion between academia and industry will be beneficial, and the added value of the networking will be boosted. Advanced development of substitutes and developing substitutes from waste can be route to develop new materials for wear applications. Activities can be divided into two main work packages firstly (work package 1) substituting or reducing the use of scarce elements in stainless steel and heat resistant superalloys used for high-performance structural elements for aerospace and energy industries and secondly (work package 2) substituting or reducing scarce elements in hard materials used for cutting tools, wear parts or in mining applications.
Work package 1: Sustainable substitution of CRMs in metal alloys (WP leader University of Burgos, Spain)
For the stainless steel and heat resistant alloys activities are targeting reduced levels of CRMs through metallurgical development including combinatorial synthesis of new alloys and demonstrate new and emerging alloys or at high temperatures thermal barrier coatings.
Work package 2: Sustainable substitution of CRMs in hard materials (WP leader VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland, task leaders Uppsala University, Sweden and University of Oulu, Finland)
Hard materials used in cutting tools and wear parts contain scarce elements such as W, Co, Ta and Nb, also less amount Cr, V and Ru. In hard materials substitutes for CRMs are developed with the value chain aspects highly evaluated, starting from manufacturing, involving verification of end users and considering recycling. The toxicity aspect of Co used as binder in hardmetals is identified and its necessity to be substituted is high. It also is expected that even new materials (such as geopolymer composites) can be developed and be substitutes for present hard materials especially in wear resistant applications. The utilisation of ash in geopolymer materials and composites and products can offer a sustainable solution. Another low energy route is direct reduction of suitable waste materials into metallic matrix composites.

Description of the expected impacts

In this RMC the partners jointly commit to co-operate and take actions enabling the full potential of primary and secondary raw materials in order to find the best solutions for primary CRM substitution. Through this platform intensive networking is possible which helps to mobilise a substantial part of European raw materials community. This Consortium enables multitechnological and systematic approach to materials research, and further helps to develop efficient tools and methods for substitution research.

The readiness level for new heat resistant alloys containing reduced levels of CRM’s is expected to reach TRL4-6, where new alloys may be proved technically feasible and where emerging solutions can be demonstrated at a component or system level. The development of new thermal barrier coatings, to enable the use of lower performing alloys in higher temperature environments, is expected to reach TRL3-4, where technologies can be proved feasible and enable further development and investment.
REACH has classified Co as very toxic for human health. Also, the U.S. National Toxicology program, NTP, states that the tungsten carbide-cobalt hard metal dust has been shown to be toxic. Furthermore, Europe’s hard metal industry is vulnerable due to the dominance of China who holds 85% of the W mines in the world. The Ammonium Para Tungstanate prices have doubled five times in the past 5 years. The proposed substitutions will 1) lead to less toxic substances in the environment which can affect the human health in particular and the environment in general. 2) Increase the competitiveness for Europe´s industry. The TRL as well as the number of WC/Co substitutes is estimated to increase to tolerated level in near future, including increasing the degree of sustainability.

Coordinating organisation & role

Name of the coordinating organisation: VTT Technical Reseach Centre of FinlandCountry: FinlandEntity profile: Governmental/public bodyRole within the commitment:

Coordination of EIP. Sustainable material desing and modeling, ecodesign, powder technology expertise and facilities, powder production, consolidation and coating facilities. Material performance testing and characterisation, wear, friction, corrosion, tribocorrosion, fatique.

Other partners

Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Angewandten Forschung e.V.

Name of the organisation: Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Angewandten Forschung e.V. Country: Germany Entity profile: Governmental/public body
Role within the commitment: Fraunhofer will lead the CFRP and GFRP recycling research.
Fraunhofer will perform corrosion tests on the developed materials.
Fraunhofer will work with CIDAUT on the implementation, validation and refinement of LCCA tools for the project. Fraunhofer is the Quality Manager of the Consortium and will oversee deliverables and general reporting are produced with the best possible quality following agreed review standards.

Fundacion Cidaut

Name of the organisation: Fundacion Cidaut Country: Spain Entity profile:
Role within the commitment: CIDAUT will lead the research activities on materials recycling and compounding, implementing lab scale demonstrators of each process at its premises and, later, supporting end-users upscale the processes.
CIDAUT will perform mechanical tests, microstructural analyses, injection moulding capability studies on the developed materails, and will work with Fraunhofer on the implementation, validation and refinement of LCCA tools for the project.

RWTH Aachen University (Institute of plastic processing (IKV)

Name of the organisation: RWTH Aachen University (Institute of plastic processing (IKV) Country: Germany Entity profile: Governmental/public body
Role within the commitment: RWTH will implement the novel 3D Generative Preforming process (3D Fibre Spraying) that enables to create high-value long fibre-reinforced 3D preforms for thermoplastic and thermoset composites at low process costs (different kinds of yarn as a raw material, low tooling costs due to low cavity pressures). This cost effective technology allows to align the sprayed fibres in order to produce high-performance, engineered anisotropic products.

Universita' di Cagliari

Name of the organisation: Universita' di Cagliari Country: Italy Entity profile:
Role within the commitment: University of Cagliari is one of the leading European organization in the resin design and coupling with thermoplastic and thermose materials. University of Cagliari will support in the definition of the composite materials, both from CFRP/GFRP, ABS and Rare Earth composite material.

Relight

Name of the organisation: Relight Country: Italy Entity profile: Private sector - SME
Role within the commitment: RELIGHT will work with ITRB to provide the research partners with residues for the recycled ABS supply and the REE recovery processes, including their HydroWEEE process as part of the processes to be studied and analyzed.

Piaggio Aerospace

Name of the organisation: Piaggio Aerospace Country: Italy Entity profile: Private sector - large company
Role within the commitment: Piaggio Aerospace is one of the project End Users (Aeronautics Industry): as such it will provide requirements and further applications that could be developed with the Consortium Materials. Piaggio will assist in the compounds selection, provide Fraunhofer with specific corrosion requirements on business jet size aircraft, and will assess that the developed materials performance fits the selected applications desired improvements.

Blackshape Aircrafts

Name of the organisation: Blackshape Aircrafts Country: Italy Entity profile: Private sector - SME
Role within the commitment: Blackshape Aircrafts is one of the project End Users (Aeronautics Industry): as such it will provide requirements and further applications that could be developed with the Consortium Materials. Blackshape will support to fulfill the requirements of the aeronautics industry on ultra light jet, light jet and trainer for Syllabus, and will assess that the developed alloys performance fits the selected applications desired improvements.

KU Leuven

Name of the organisation: KU Leuven Country: Belgium Entity profile: Academia
Role within the commitment: KUL will collaborate on the balance problem studies and will lead the rare earth recovery research with the solvometallurgical and ionometallurgical processes.
KUL will also contribute to the final compounding selection.
KUL is the Dissemination Manager of the project, promoting that all partners are active on the project Dissemination.

FIDAMC

Name of the organisation: FIDAMC Country: Spain Entity profile: Governmental/public body
Role within the commitment: FIDAMC is going to lead the Work Package on Compression Moulding with CFRP-enhanced materials. As part of the AIRBUS Group, FIDAMC will also be able to provide the input material.
FIDAMC successfully developed a 3D Printer of own design to serve the Aerospace Industry and will be supporting Smart Lab 3D Industries in its 3D printer design.

COMPOSITE INNOVATION CENTER

Name of the organisation: COMPOSITE INNOVATION CENTER Country: Canada Entity profile: Governmental/public body
Role within the commitment: Composite Innovation Center is one of the world leading organization in the field of Composite materials, both from carbon fiber and vegetal-based fibers.
Composite Innovation center has successfully implemented, at lab-scale, recycling processes for CFRP and GFRP.

Existing EU Contribution: Yes

Period to implement the commitment: from 01-01-2014 to 30-12-2019